Manuals

The page is dedicated to manuals, and it serves as a valuable resource hub for researchers, environmental professionals, and land managers seeking guidance on well-tested methodologies. The page provides access to a collection of comprehensive manuals from EuroGeoSurveys and the International Union of Geological Sciences, covering sampling techniques, laboratory analysis, quality control procedures, statistical processing, and map plotting methods. Explore the page to access essential resources for environmental research and land management initiatives.

The second EuroGeoSurveys’ Urban Geochemistry Project (URGE II) aims to provide harmonised geochemical data about the current state of the quality of urban and suburban surface soil in European Union countries for multipurpose use. The results produced from such a survey should be of high quality and integrity, and to be legally defensible as they are very sensitive environmental health related data, because they inform us about the chemical state of our home, school, work and recreational environments, which affects our quality of life.

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Given that the quality of the urban environment is a key issue in planning a healthy home, school, work, and recreational facilities, there is an urgent need to know the concentration of chemical elements and compounds, which are currently in our urban environment, and how they differ from the pre-urbanisation stage. The manual describes the procedure of (i) sampling topsoil, subsoil, house dust, attic dust, road dust or sediment, air particulates and bio-indicators, including human tissues, (ii) sample preparation, (iii) laboratory analysis, (iv) quality control, (v) data conditioning, and (vi) data processing and map plotting.

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FOREGS (Forum of European Geological Surveys) Geochemical Baseline Programme has been initiated to provide high quality environmental geochemical baseline data for Europe. The data will be based on samples of stream water, stream sediment, floodplain sediment, soil, and humus collected all over Europe. High quality and consistency of the obtained data are ensured by using standardised sampling methods and by treating and analysing all samples in the same laboratories. The sampling instructions are based on the recommendations of the IGCP 259 and IGCP 360 programmes. The report contains comprehensive instructions for sample site selection and sample collection. In addition, a summary of methods intended for sample preparation and analysis is included.

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REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), the new European Chemicals Regulation was adopted in December 2006. It came into force on the 1st June 2007. REACH, as well as the pending EU Soil Protection Directive, require additional knowledge about “soil quality” at the European scale. The GEMAS (geochemical mapping of agricultural soils and grazing land of Europe) project aims at providing harmonized geochemical data of arable land and land under permanent grass cover at the continental, European scale. Geological Surveys in 34 European countries, covering an area of 5.6 million km2 , have agreed to sample their territory at a sample density of 1 site each, arable land (0-20 cm) and land under permanent grass cover (0-10 cm), per 2500 km2.

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The book contains separate chapters providing extensive information on sampling protocols for rocks, residual soil, humus, stream water, stream sediments, and overbank and floodplain sediments. Any applied geochemist contemplating carrying out a geochemical mapping project at a global scale, or any other scale, should find a wealth of useful information within these pages. This sampling manual is another accomplishment of the IUGS Commission on Global Geochemical Baselines.

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The aim of the Global Black Soil Critical Zone Geo-ecological Survey (BASGES) is to study, in a holistic approach, the serious degradation problems that Black Soil types are facing all over the world because of several decades of intensive cultivation. Their present chemical state shall be studied by following the principles of the IUGS Commission on Global Geochemical Baselines for producing an internally consistent high-quality geochemical database. The requirements are to use standardised sampling and sample preparation methods, and all samples must be analysed in the same laboratory for the same suite of determinands/parameters, following a strict quality control protocol.

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